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Maturity Date Definition for Loans – Bonds – Investments

What Does Maturity Date Mean?

Maturity DateThe maturity date is when a debt instrument comes due.  It represents the final payment or receipt of interest for a loan, bond, or other financial product.

The maturity date for a loan is the deadline for repaying it in full. The principal amount of the debt is entirely paid on this date, therefore no more interest expenditure is incurred. For some debt instruments, the maturity date can be shifted to an earlier date at the debt issuer’s discretion. The issuer of a bond may reserve the option to purchase back the bond before its formal maturity date.  This allows the issuer flexibility to decrease the period during which interest is accrued. The principal associated with a debt instrument may be totally payable as a lump sum at the maturity date.  Or, the principle may be paid progressively with the interest during the term of the instrument. It depends on the provisions of the specific debt instrument.

Why Does a Maturity Date Matter?

The maturity date of your loan or investment is important to track.  This matters whether you’re borrowing or investing. A maturity date is a day on which the final payment for a loan, bond, or other financial product is due. It also indicates how long it will take for investors or lenders to collect interest payments.

It is significant because the term defines when the principal must be repaid in full.  Therefore, the maturity date marks the point at which no further interest or fees are payable to the lender. If a company is unable to remit full payment of all of its debts on time, it has implications for both sides.  For instance, the lender will not be compensated and the borrower may face legal issues.

Maturity Date for Loans

A loan’s maturity date is the date it is due to be paid in full. If you’ve made regular and timely payments, the loan and any accrued interest should ideally be paid off in full with the final payment. If you have an amount lingering after your maturity date, you must work with the lender.  You need to figure out how to pay it off or get it removed. Check your loan contract for the last payment or maturity date. As an example, assume you borrow $10,000 with a 48-month term on August 30, 2022. Your loan will mature in four years, with the final payment due on April 30, 2026.

Mortgage loans

The maturity date for a home mortgage could be several decades down the road depending on the terms. For example, consider a homeowner who buys a $450,000 house on August 30, 2022.  The buyer provides a $50,000 down payment and agrees to a 30-year mortgage.  In that case, the loan of $400,000 will mature on August 30, 2052. You can enter a loan amount, period, and interest rate into a mortgage calculator. This tool allows you to calculate amortization, or how much principal and interest you’ll pay until the loan expires.  If you pay off your loan before its maturity date, your lender may charge you a fee. This is called a prepayment penalty.  Lenders often levy this prepayment fee for early repayment.  This is because they lose interest if you pay in full before the loan matures.

Nevertheless, the interest you save usually makes it worthwhile to pay your mortgage off as soon as you are able. Read your loan agreement first so you can plan accordingly.  At the loan maturity date, the borrower’s final loan payment is due. The promissory note is a publicly filed record of the original debt.  This recorded obligation is retired once that payment is made and all repayment terms have been met. The lender no longer has a claim on any of the borrower’s assets in the case of a secured loan. Loan maturity dates and other payment terms can frequently be changed.  Usually, by refinancing or renegotiating the loan to fund home improvements or the purchase of extra assets.

Maturity Date for Investments

When you’re investing money, the maturity date is when you receive the total funds you’ve invested.  For example in debt instruments like bonds, notes, and certificates of deposit (CDs).

Maturity Date for a certificate of deposit (CD)

A typical CD requires depositing a specified amount of money with a bank or credit union for a set period of time.  In return, you receive access to the initial deposit plus interest collected when the CD matures. For example, if you put $20,000 into a one-year CD with an APY of 1.0%, you will receive $20,200.00 when it matures. After maturity, you have the option of withdrawing the funds or starting another CD term. In some circumstances, if you do not exercise within a certain interval, the CD may be automatically renewed.  In that instance, it is important to keep track of the maturity date.

However, if you withdraw funds from a CD before the maturity date, you may be charged early withdrawal penalties. CDs are considered a safe way to save money in the near term.  This is because the interest is usually fixed and guaranteed when the CD expires. Your money is also safeguarded for up to $250,000 in an FDIC-insured CD account if the bank fails.

Maturity Date for Bonds and Notes

When a bond matures, you receive the face value or “par” value of the bond.  This represents the principal you initially allow the bond issuer to borrow. One distinction between standard CDs and bonds is that interest payments may be made before the bond matures. This happens twice a year on average. So, if you invest $10,000 in a bond, you’ll get $10,000 back when it matures.  In addition, you receive semiannual interest payments that you can keep or reinvest. This is why many investors consider bonds to be a safe and reliable source of income.

U.S.Treasury Bonds and Notes

  • U.S.Treasury Bonds – Some bonds can take decades to mature. For instance, U.S. Treasury bonds can have periods of up to 30 years. Treasury bonds pay a fixed rate of interest every six months until they mature. They are issued for a term of 30 years. You can buy Treasury bonds from TreasuryDirect. You also can buy them through a bank or broker.
  • U.S. Treasury notes – Treasury Notes function similarly to bonds, with the exception that they may mature in less than ten years. Treasury notes, sometimes called T-Notes, earn a fixed rate of interest every six months until maturity. Notes are issued in terms of 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 years. You can buy notes from us in TreasuryDirect. You also can buy them through a bank or broker.
  • Corporate Bonds and Notes – These bonds and notes issued by large companies are fixed-income instruments that are considered lower-risk investments.  However, they are not risk-free. There is always the possibility that the corporation will be unable to pay the interest or repay the debt. As a result, bonds have credit ratings that measure their credit risk and can be used to compare investments. Default risk is less of an issue for US government bonds, but corporation bonds can have various risk levels to consider.

Maturity date of Derivatives

The maturity date of derivatives such as options or forward contracts represents when the holder can exercise them. In some circumstances, the maturity date is also the expiration date of the derivative. For example, each option has a different expiration or maturity date. This is the last day to exercise an option as defined in the underlying futures contract. The option contract will cease to exist after the expiration or maturity date.  In other words, the buyer will be unable to exercise and the seller will be under no obligation.

The Bottom Line

The maturity date is the date set for a borrower to fulfill the conditions of a debt agreement.  It represents the due date for the final payment. For example, the final payment on a vehicle loan or mortgage. The borrower could be a bank, municipality, enterprise, or government if you are the investor. It is a good idea to understand the benefits as well as the dangers associated with investing money. Traditional CDs keep your money safe and guarantee the return.  You don’t have to worry about not getting your money back with an FDIC-insured CD account. However, corporate bond risk profiles vary, and your money is not guaranteed. Investigating performance reports and bond credit ratings will assist you in selecting the best bonds for your portfolio.

Up Next: What Does Allocation Amount Mean?

Allocation AmountAllocation amount is the percentage of money given to a particular person or used for a particular purpose.  For example, direct deposit payroll distribution, automated investing, or insurance beneficiary disbursement.

Allocation Amount in Finance

An asset allocation amount in finance is the percentage of an investor’s cash or capital outlay that goes toward a final investment. The allocation amount often refers to the amount invested in a product minus the fees incurred during the transaction. An allocation amount can also identify the percentage of income that an investor applies to specific investment categories.  For example, stocks, bonds, commodities, or ETFs, These predetermined allocations can be established on an ongoing basis through an automatic investment plan.

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